An electronic throttle control actuator is responsible for metering air flow into the engine which controls engine speed. A throttle control sensor located near the foot pedal supplies feedback data to the computer which activates the actuator. The throttle control system is integrated into the ABS, cruise control and traction control systems. In older vehicles throttle action was performed by a manually controlled throttle cable which is actuated by the driver's right foot.
To address this problem, cars also have alternators. Alternators are actually small generators capable of turning mechanical into electrical energy. Driven by the engine belt, alternators use a small signal from the battery to energize a field current that turns a rotor inside a set of stators. Since this energy is driven by the polarity of magnetic fields, the current produced as a result changes direction as the rotor turns, producing current in opposite or alternating directions (hence AC). Alternators produce significantly higher currents than initially supplied by the battery, so they are used to recharge the battery itself and power other electrical components.
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