Relays are extremely useful for handling high-amperage electrical accessories like large electric fans, fuel pumps, and HID headlights. They are activated by an electric coil and controlled by a switch. When the relay is closed, no power goes to the accessory in question. When you flip the accessory switch, an electric coil in the relay opens, sending power to the accessory.
Modern vehicles have an abundance of accessories and components that are powered by electricity. The primary source of this electricity is the vehicle's battery. When the engine is running, the battery is charged by a part of the engine called the alternator. Before it is distributed, the electricity travels through the fuse box, where fuses on each circuit prevent components from receiving too much power in the event of an electrical disturbance. Different wiring harnesses then distribute the electricity to the engine and throughout the vehicle.
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