Most camshafts extend through the top part of the engine block, directly above the crankshaft. On inline engines, a single camshaft controls both the intake and outtake valves. On V-shaped engines, two separate camshafts are used. One controls the valves on one side of the V and the other controls the valves on the opposite side. Some V-shaped engines (like the one in our illustration) will even have two camshafts per cylinder bank. One camshaft controls one side of valves, and the other camshaft controls the other side.
The crankshaft resides in what’s called the crankcase on an engine. The crankcase is located beneath the cylinder block. The crankcase protects the crankshaft and connecting rods from outside objects. The area at the bottom of a crankcase is called the oil pan and that’s where your engine’s oil is stored. Inside the oil pan, you’ll find an oil pump that pumps oil through a filter, and then that oil is squirted on to the crankshaft, connecting rod bearings, and cylinder walls to provide lubrication to the movement of the piston stroke. The oil eventually drips back down into the oil pan, only to begin the process again
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